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[开发杂谈]内核分析

  2016-04-04 00:14:58

刘文学+原创作品转载请注明出处 http://blog.csdn.net/wdxz6547/article/details/51051866 + 《Linux内核分析》MOOC课程http://mooc.study.163.com/course/USTC-1000029000
本文目的, 跟踪 fork 从用户态到内核态之后返回用户态的整个流程. 最后通过
调试验证该流程.

进程描述块


谈论Linux 进程, 不能绕过 task_struct 数据结构. 该结构定义在
linux/include/linux/sched.h
由于数量代码量非常庞大, 事实上对此, 只需要大概了解即可. 下面只列出我自己感觉有用的成员
  • volatile long state; /* -1 unrunnable, 0 runnable, >0 stopped */
  • void *stack;
  • atomic_t usage;
  • unsigned int flags; /* per process flags, defined below */
  • struct sched_info sched_info
  • struct list_head tasks;
  • struct mm_struct *mm, *active_mm;
  • int exit_state;
  • int exit_code, exit_signal;
  • unsigned long atomic_flags; /* Flags needing atomic access. */
  • struct restart_block restart_block;
  • struct task_struct __rcu real_parent; / real parent process */
  • struct task_struct __rcu *parent;
  • struct list_head children; /* list of my children */
  • struct list_head sibling; /* linkage in my parent’s children list */

  • struct task_struct group_leader; / threadgroup leader */

  • struct sched_class *sched_class;
  • struct sched_entity se;
  • struct pid_link pids[PIDTYPE_MAX];
  • struct list_head thread_group;
  • struct list_head thread_node;
  • pid_t pid;
  • pid_t tgid;
  • struct sysv_sem sysvsem; //IPC
  • struct sysv_shm sysvshm;
  • struct nameidata *nameidata;
  • struct fs_struct *fs;
  • struct files_struct *files;
  • void *journal_info;
  • struct list_head tasks;
  • struct mm_struct *mm, *active_mm;
  • struct thread_struct thread;

还有一些 pstrace, numa, smp, perf_event, cgroup, 中断跟踪, 信号处理等并不是目前关注的问题.

进程创建


从系统调用部分, 我们已经对系统调用有了基本的了解. 因此, 这里通过对 fork
这个系统调用的学习, 一方面加深对系统调用的理解, 一方面理解进程创建的原理.
首先当用户通过 fork 这个系统调用创建一个新的进程的时候, 首先触发中断 0x80,
系统由用户态跳转到内核态. 内核态首先保存现场, 根据用户态传递的系统调用号,
这里
查找 sys_call_table 找到 fork 对应的系统处理函数 sys_fork(实际上为
SYSCALL_DEFINE0(fork))
fork 的代码具体实现在这里
首先, 调用 _do_fork(SIGCHLD, 0, 0, NULL, NULL, 0)
而 _do_fork 对 fork 主要有用的两个函数
p = copy_process(clone_flags, stack_start, stack_size,
child_tidptr, NULL, trace, tls);

当 copy_process 执行成功:
1. pid = get_task_pid(p, PIDTYPE_PID); 获取进程 pid
2. wake_up_new_task(p);
至此, 系统调用 fork 返回. 其余部分与系统参照系统调用部分. 下面着重分析
copy_process 和 wake_up_new_task

copy_process

http://code.woboq.org/linux/linux/kernel/fork.c.html#copy_process

static struct task_struct *copy_process(unsigned long clone_flags,
                    unsigned long stack_start,
                    unsigned long stack_size,
                    int __user *child_tidptr,
                    struct pid *pid,
                    int trace,
                    unsigned long tls)
{
    int retval;
    struct task_struct *p;
    //调用 security_hook_heads.task_create 中每一个元素 P 的 P->hook.task_create(clone_flags)
    retval = security_task_create(clone_flags);
    if (retval)
        goto fork_out;
    retval = -ENOMEM;
    //为新的进程分配内核空间, 新进程分配内核堆栈. 之后将 current 拷贝给
    //新创建进程 p, 设置相关属性. 并返回 p. 至此, 新进程的空间及内容已经
    //就绪.
    p = dup_task_struct(current);
    if (!p)
        goto fork_out;

    //初始化 p->pi_lock
    rt_mutex_init_task(p);

    retval = -EAGAIN;
    current->flags &= ~PF_NPROC_EXCEEDED;
    //为 p 分配内核空间, 并将 current->cred 拷贝给 p, 并更新 p->cred 相关成员
    retval = copy_creds(p, clone_flags);
    if (retval < 0)
        goto bad_fork_free;
    /*
     * If multiple threads are within copy_process(), then this check
     * triggers too late. This doesn't hurt, the check is only there
     * to stop root fork bombs.
     */
    retval = -EAGAIN;
    if (nr_threads >= max_threads)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_count;
    //为 p->delays 分配内核空间并加锁
    delayacct_tsk_init(p);  /* Must remain after dup_task_struct() */

    //下面初始化 p 相关数据成员
    p->flags &= ~(PF_SUPERPRIV | PF_WQ_WORKER);
    p->flags |= PF_FORKNOEXEC;
    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&p->children);
    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&p->sibling);
    rcu_copy_process(p);
    p->vfork_done = NULL;
    spin_lock_init(&p->alloc_lock);
    init_sigpending(&p->pending);
    p->utime = p->stime = p->gtime = 0;
    p->utimescaled = p->stimescaled = 0;
    prev_cputime_init(&p->prev_cputime);

#ifdef CONFIG_VIRT_CPU_ACCOUNTING_GEN
    seqcount_init(&p->vtime_seqcount);
    p->vtime_snap = 0;
    p->vtime_snap_whence = VTIME_INACTIVE;
#endif
#if defined(SPLIT_RSS_COUNTING)
    memset(&p->rss_stat, 0, sizeof(p->rss_stat));
#endif
    p->default_timer_slack_ns = current->timer_slack_ns;
    //p->ioac 置零
    task_io_accounting_init(&p->ioac);
    acct_clear_integrals(p);
    posix_cpu_timers_init(p);
    p->start_time = ktime_get_ns();
    p->real_start_time = ktime_get_boot_ns();
    p->io_context = NULL;
    p->audit_context = NULL;
    threadgroup_change_begin(current);
    cgroup_fork(p);
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
    p->mempolicy = mpol_dup(p->mempolicy);
    if (IS_ERR(p->mempolicy)) {
        retval = PTR_ERR(p->mempolicy);
        p->mempolicy = NULL;
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_threadgroup_lock;
    }
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_CPUSETS
    p->cpuset_mem_spread_rotor = NUMA_NO_NODE;
    p->cpuset_slab_spread_rotor = NUMA_NO_NODE;
    seqcount_init(&p->mems_allowed_seq);
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_TRACE_IRQFLAGS
    p->irq_events = 0;
    p->hardirqs_enabled = 0;
    p->hardirq_enable_ip = 0;
    p->hardirq_enable_event = 0;
    p->hardirq_disable_ip = _THIS_IP_;
    p->hardirq_disable_event = 0;
    p->softirqs_enabled = 1;
    p->softirq_enable_ip = _THIS_IP_;
    p->softirq_enable_event = 0;
    p->softirq_disable_ip = 0;
    p->softirq_disable_event = 0;
    p->hardirq_context = 0;
    p->softirq_context = 0;
#endif
    p->pagefault_disabled = 0;
#ifdef CONFIG_LOCKDEP
    p->lockdep_depth = 0; /* no locks held yet */
    p->curr_chain_key = 0;
    p->lockdep_recursion = 0;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_MUTEXES
    p->blocked_on = NULL; /* not blocked yet */
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_BCACHE
    p->sequential_io    = 0;
    p->sequential_io_avg    = 0;
#endif



    /* Perform scheduler related setup. Assign this task to a CPU. */
    //初始化 sched, numa 相关成员, TODO
    retval = sched_fork(clone_flags, p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_policy;
    //初始化 CONFIG_PERF_EVENTS 条件编译中的成员
    retval = perf_event_init_task(p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_policy;
    //为成员 audit_context 分配内存并初始化, 并设置 TIF_SYSCALL_AUDIT 标志
    retval = audit_alloc(p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_perf;
    /* copy all the process information */
    //初始化 p->sysvshm
    shm_init_task(p);
    retval = copy_semundo(clone_flags, p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_audit;
    //拷贝父进程的 files
    retval = copy_files(clone_flags, p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_semundo;
    //拷贝父进程的 fs
    retval = copy_fs(clone_flags, p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_files;
    //拷贝父进程的 sighand
    retval = copy_sighand(clone_flags, p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_fs;

    //拷贝父进程的 signal
    retval = copy_signal(clone_flags, p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_sighand;

    //关键, 拷贝父进程的 mm, TODO 详细分析
    retval = copy_mm(clone_flags, p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_signal;
    //创建自己的命名空间
    retval = copy_namespaces(clone_flags, p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_mm;
    //拷贝父进程的 io_context
    retval = copy_io(clone_flags, p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_namespaces;
    //拷贝父进程的 thread
    retval = copy_thread_tls(clone_flags, stack_start, stack_size, p, tls);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_cleanup_io;
    if (pid != &init_struct_pid) {
        pid = alloc_pid(p->nsproxy->pid_ns_for_children);
        if (IS_ERR(pid)) {
            retval = PTR_ERR(pid);
            goto bad_fork_cleanup_io;
        }
    }
    p->set_child_tid = (clone_flags & CLONE_CHILD_SETTID) ? child_tidptr : NULL;
    /*
     * Clear TID on mm_release()?
     */
    p->clear_child_tid = (clone_flags & CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID) ? child_tidptr : NULL;
#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
    p->plug = NULL;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_FUTEX
    p->robust_list = NULL;
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
    p->compat_robust_list = NULL;
#endif
    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&p->pi_state_list);
    p->pi_state_cache = NULL;
#endif
    /*
     * sigaltstack should be cleared when sharing the same VM
     */
    if ((clone_flags & (CLONE_VM|CLONE_VFORK)) == CLONE_VM)
        p->sas_ss_sp = p->sas_ss_size = 0;
    /*
     * Syscall tracing and stepping should be turned off in the
     * child regardless of CLONE_PTRACE.
     */
    user_disable_single_step(p);
    clear_tsk_thread_flag(p, TIF_SYSCALL_TRACE);
#ifdef TIF_SYSCALL_EMU
    clear_tsk_thread_flag(p, TIF_SYSCALL_EMU);
#endif
    clear_all_latency_tracing(p);
    /* ok, now we should be set up.. */
    p->pid = pid_nr(pid);
    if (clone_flags & CLONE_THREAD) {
        p->exit_signal = -1;
        p->group_leader = current->group_leader;
        p->tgid = current->tgid;
    } else {
        if (clone_flags & CLONE_PARENT)
            p->exit_signal = current->group_leader->exit_signal;
        else
            p->exit_signal = (clone_flags & CSIGNAL);
        p->group_leader = p;
        p->tgid = p->pid;
    }
    p->nr_dirtied = 0;
    p->nr_dirtied_pause = 128 >> (PAGE_SHIFT - 10);
    p->dirty_paused_when = 0;
    p->pdeath_signal = 0;
    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&p->thread_group);
    p->task_works = NULL;

    //后续 TODO
    /*
     * Ensure that the cgroup subsystem policies allow the new process to be
     * forked. It should be noted the the new process's css_set can be changed
     * between here and cgroup_post_fork() if an organisation operation is in
     * progress.
     */
    retval = cgroup_can_fork(p);
    if (retval)
        goto bad_fork_free_pid;
    /*
     * Make it visible to the rest of the system, but dont wake it up yet.
     * Need tasklist lock for parent etc handling!
     */
    write_lock_irq(&tasklist_lock);
    /* CLONE_PARENT re-uses the old parent */
    if (clone_flags & (CLONE_PARENT|CLONE_THREAD)) {
        p->real_parent = current->real_parent;
        p->parent_exec_id = current->parent_exec_id;
    } else {
        p->real_parent = current;
        p->parent_exec_id = current->self_exec_id;
    }
    spin_lock(&current->sighand->siglock);
    /*
     * Copy seccomp details explicitly here, in case they were changed
     * before holding sighand lock.
     */
    copy_seccomp(p);
    /*
     * Process group and session signals need to be delivered to just the
     * parent before the fork or both the parent and the child after the
     * fork. Restart if a signal comes in before we add the new process to
     * it's process group.
     * A fatal signal pending means that current will exit, so the new
     * thread can't slip out of an OOM kill (or normal SIGKILL).
    */
    recalc_sigpending();
    if (signal_pending(current)) {
        spin_unlock(&current->sighand->siglock);
        write_unlock_irq(&tasklist_lock);
        retval = -ERESTARTNOINTR;
        goto bad_fork_cancel_cgroup;
    }
    if (likely(p->pid)) {
        ptrace_init_task(p, (clone_flags & CLONE_PTRACE) || trace);
        init_task_pid(p, PIDTYPE_PID, pid);
        if (thread_group_leader(p)) {
            init_task_pid(p, PIDTYPE_PGID, task_pgrp(current));
            init_task_pid(p, PIDTYPE_SID, task_session(current));
            if (is_child_reaper(pid)) {
                ns_of_pid(pid)->child_reaper = p;
                p->signal->flags |= SIGNAL_UNKILLABLE;
            }
            p->signal->leader_pid = pid;
            p->signal->tty = tty_kref_get(current->signal->tty);
            list_add_tail(&p->sibling, &p->real_parent->children);
            list_add_tail_rcu(&p->tasks, &init_task.tasks);
            attach_pid(p, PIDTYPE_PGID);
            attach_pid(p, PIDTYPE_SID);
            __this_cpu_inc(process_counts);
        } else {
            current->signal->nr_threads++;
            atomic_inc(&current->signal->live);
            atomic_inc(&current->signal->sigcnt);
            list_add_tail_rcu(&p->thread_group,
                      &p->group_leader->thread_group);
            list_add_tail_rcu(&p->thread_node,
                      &p->signal->thread_head);
        }
        attach_pid(p, PIDTYPE_PID);
        nr_threads++;
    }
    total_forks++;
    spin_unlock(&current->sighand->siglock);
    syscall_tracepoint_update(p);
    write_unlock_irq(&tasklist_lock);
    proc_fork_connector(p);
    cgroup_post_fork(p);
    threadgroup_change_end(current);
    perf_event_fork(p);
    trace_task_newtask(p, clone_flags);
    uprobe_copy_process(p, clone_flags);
    return p;
bad_fork_cancel_cgroup:
    cgroup_cancel_fork(p);
bad_fork_free_pid:
    if (pid != &init_struct_pid)
        free_pid(pid);
bad_fork_cleanup_io:
    if (p->io_context)
        exit_io_context(p);
bad_fork_cleanup_namespaces:
    exit_task_namespaces(p);
bad_fork_cleanup_mm:
    if (p->mm)
        mmput(p->mm);
bad_fork_cleanup_signal:
    if (!(clone_flags & CLONE_THREAD))
        free_signal_struct(p->signal);
bad_fork_cleanup_sighand:
    __cleanup_sighand(p->sighand);
bad_fork_cleanup_fs:
    exit_fs(p); /* blocking */
bad_fork_cleanup_files:
    exit_files(p); /* blocking */
bad_fork_cleanup_semundo:
    exit_sem(p);
bad_fork_cleanup_audit:
    audit_free(p);
bad_fork_cleanup_perf:
    perf_event_free_task(p);
bad_fork_cleanup_policy:
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
    mpol_put(p->mempolicy);
bad_fork_cleanup_threadgroup_lock:
#endif
    threadgroup_change_end(current);
    delayacct_tsk_free(p);
bad_fork_cleanup_count:
    atomic_dec(&p->cred->user->processes);
    exit_creds(p);
bad_fork_free:
    free_task(p);
fork_out:
    return ERR_PTR(retval);
}

dup_task_struct 分析
http://code.woboq.org/linux/linux/kernel/fork.c.html#dup_task_struct

static struct task_struct *dup_task_struct(struct task_struct *orig)
{
    struct task_struct *tsk;
    struct thread_info *ti;
    //对于非 NUMA 架构, 返回 -1
    int node = tsk_fork_get_node(orig);
    int err;
    //为新进程分配内核空间:
    //  kmem_cache_alloc_node(task_struct_cachep, GFP_KERNEL, node);
    //  slab_alloc_node(s, gfpflags, node, _RET_IP_);
    //
    tsk = alloc_task_struct_node(node);
    if (!tsk)
        return NULL;
    //为新进程分配线程页信息:
    //  struct page *page = alloc_kmem_pages_node(node, THREADINFO_GFP, THREAD_SIZE_ORDER);
    //  return page ? page_address(page) : NULL;
    ti = alloc_thread_info_node(tsk, node);
    if (!ti)
        goto free_tsk;
    //将 tsk 指向 org 的内存地址
    //  *tsk = *org
    err = arch_dup_task_struct(tsk, orig);
    if (err)
        goto free_ti;
    //注意这里 tsk 的 stack 是自己重新分配的, 而不是共享.
    tsk->stack = ti;
#ifdef CONFIG_SECCOMP
    /*
     * We must handle setting up seccomp filters once we're under
     * the sighand lock in case orig has changed between now and
     * then. Until then, filter must be NULL to avoid messing up
     * the usage counts on the error path calling free_task.
     */
    tsk->seccomp.filter = NULL;
#endif
    //初始化 task 的栈为 origin 的栈
    //  tsk->stack = orig->stack
    //  tsk->stack->task = tsk
    setup_thread_stack(tsk, orig);
    //置零 tsk->stack->flags 中的 TIF_USER_RETURN_NOTIFY 标志
    clear_user_return_notifier(tsk);
    //置零 tsk->stack->flags 中的 TIF_NEED_RESCHED 标志
    clear_tsk_need_resched(tsk);
    //溢出检查
    //将 tsk->stack 最后一个自己设置为 STACK_END_MAGIC, 标记 stack 结束
    set_task_stack_end_magic(tsk);
#ifdef CONFIG_CC_STACKPROTECTOR
    tsk->stack_canary = get_random_int();
#endif
    /*
     * One for us, one for whoever does the "release_task()" (usually
     * parent)
     */
    atomic_set(&tsk->usage, 2);
#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IO_TRACE
    tsk->btrace_seq = 0;
#endif
    //设置 task_struct 一些属性
    tsk->splice_pipe = NULL;
    tsk->task_frag.page = NULL;
    tsk->wake_q.next = NULL;
    account_kernel_stack(ti, 1);
    return tsk;
free_ti:
    free_thread_info(ti);
free_tsk:
    free_task_struct(tsk);
    return NULL;
}

wake_up_new_task

/*
 * wake_up_new_task - wake up a newly created task for the first time.
 *
 * This function will do some initial scheduler statistics housekeeping
 * that must be done for every newly created context, then puts the task
 * on the runqueue and wakes it.
 */
void wake_up_new_task(struct task_struct *p)
{
    unsigned long flags;
    struct rq *rq;
    raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&p->pi_lock, flags);
    /* Initialize new task's runnable average */
    init_entity_runnable_average(&p->se);
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
    /*
     * Fork balancing, do it here and not earlier because:
     *  - cpus_allowed can change in the fork path
     *  - any previously selected cpu might disappear through hotplug
     */
    set_task_cpu(p, select_task_rq(p, task_cpu(p), SD_BALANCE_FORK, 0));
#endif
    rq = __task_rq_lock(p);
    activate_task(rq, p, 0);
    p->on_rq = TASK_ON_RQ_QUEUED;
    trace_sched_wakeup_new(p);
    check_preempt_curr(rq, p, WF_FORK);
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
    if (p->sched_class->task_woken) {
        /*
         * Nothing relies on rq->lock after this, so its fine to
         * drop it.
         */
        lockdep_unpin_lock(&rq->lock);
        p->sched_class->task_woken(rq, p);
        lockdep_pin_lock(&rq->lock);
    }
#endif
    task_rq_unlock(rq, p, &flags);
}

附录
task_struct 中会保留父进程信息的数据成员. 未完待续
struct task_struct {
    volatile long state;    /* -1 unrunnable, 0 runnable, >0 stopped */
    void *stack;
    atomic_t usage;
    unsigned int flags; /* per process flags, defined below */
    unsigned int ptrace;
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
    struct llist_node wake_entry;
    int on_cpu;
    unsigned int wakee_flips;
    unsigned long wakee_flip_decay_ts;
    struct task_struct *last_wakee;
    int wake_cpu;
#endif
    //prio 父进程的 normal_prio
    int prio, static_prio, normal_prio;
    unsigned int rt_priority;
    const struct sched_class *sched_class;
    //重要结构, 非克隆
    struct sched_rt_entity rt;
#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_SCHED
    struct task_group *sched_task_group;
#endif
    //重要结构, 非克隆
    struct sched_dl_entity dl;
#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IO_TRACE
    unsigned int btrace_seq;
#endif
    unsigned int policy;
    int nr_cpus_allowed;
    cpumask_t cpus_allowed;
#ifdef CONFIG_TASKS_RCU
    unsigned long rcu_tasks_nvcsw;
#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_TASKS_RCU */
#ifdef CONFIG_SCHED_INFO
    struct sched_info sched_info;
#endif
    struct list_head tasks;
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
    struct plist_node pushable_tasks;
    struct rb_node pushable_dl_tasks;
#endif
    struct mm_struct *mm, *active_mm;
    /* per-thread vma caching */
    u32 vmacache_seqnum;
    struct vm_area_struct *vmacache[VMACACHE_SIZE];
/* task state */
    int exit_state;
    int exit_code, exit_signal;
    unsigned long jobctl;   /* JOBCTL_*, siglock protected */
    /* Used for emulating ABI behavior of previous Linux versions */
    unsigned int personality;
    /* scheduler bits, serialized by scheduler locks */
    unsigned sched_reset_on_fork:1;
    unsigned sched_contributes_to_load:1;
    unsigned sched_migrated:1;
    unsigned :0; /* force alignment to the next boundary */
    /* unserialized, strictly 'current' */
    unsigned in_execve:1; /* bit to tell LSMs we're in execve */
    unsigned in_iowait:1;
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG
    unsigned memcg_may_oom:1;
#ifndef CONFIG_SLOB
    unsigned memcg_kmem_skip_account:1;
#endif
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK
    unsigned brk_randomized:1;
#endif
    unsigned long atomic_flags; /* Flags needing atomic access. */
    struct restart_block restart_block;
    pid_t pid;
    pid_t tgid;
#ifdef CONFIG_CC_STACKPROTECTOR
    /* Canary value for the -fstack-protector gcc feature */
    unsigned long stack_canary;
#endif
    /*
     * pointers to (original) parent process, youngest child, younger sibling,
     * older sibling, respectively.  (p->father can be replaced with
     * p->real_parent->pid)
     */
    struct task_struct __rcu *real_parent; /* real parent process */
    struct task_struct __rcu *parent; /* recipient of SIGCHLD, wait4() reports */
    struct task_struct *group_leader;   /* threadgroup leader */
    /*
     * ptraced is the list of tasks this task is using ptrace on.
     * This includes both natural children and PTRACE_ATTACH targets.
     * p->ptrace_entry is p's link on the p->parent->ptraced list.
     */
    struct list_head ptraced;
    struct list_head ptrace_entry;
    /* PID/PID hash table linkage. */
    struct pid_link pids[PIDTYPE_MAX];
    struct list_head thread_node;
    unsigned long nvcsw, nivcsw; /* context switch counts */
/* mm fault and swap info: this can arguably be seen as either mm-specific or thread-specific */
    unsigned long min_flt, maj_flt;
/* process credentials */
    const struct cred __rcu *real_cred; /* objective and real subjective task
                     * credentials (COW) */
    char comm[TASK_COMM_LEN]; /* executable name excluding path
                     - access with [gs]et_task_comm (which lock
                       it with task_lock())
                     - initialized normally by setup_new_exec */
/* file system info */
    struct nameidata *nameidata;
#ifdef CONFIG_SYSVIPC
/* ipc stuff */
    struct sysv_sem sysvsem;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_DETECT_HUNG_TASK
/* hung task detection */
    unsigned long last_switch_count;
#endif
/* filesystem information */
    struct fs_struct *fs;       //拷贝父进程
/* open file information */
    struct files_struct *files; //拷贝父进程
/* signal handlers */
    //仅拷贝父进程的 signal->rlim, oom_score_adj, oom_score_adj_min, has_child_subreaper  而不是内存.
    struct signal_struct *signal;
    struct sighand_struct *sighand; //仅拷贝父进程的 sighand->action, 而不是内存.
    sigset_t blocked, real_blocked;
    sigset_t saved_sigmask; /* restored if set_restore_sigmask() was used */
    unsigned long sas_ss_sp;
    size_t sas_ss_size;
#ifdef CONFIG_AUDITSYSCALL
    kuid_t loginuid;
    unsigned int sessionid;
#endif
    struct seccomp seccomp;
/* Thread group tracking */
    u32 parent_exec_id;
    u32 self_exec_id;
/* Protection of (de-)allocation: mm, files, fs, tty, keyrings, mems_allowed,
 * mempolicy */
    struct wake_q_node wake_q;
#ifdef CONFIG_LOCKDEP
# define MAX_LOCK_DEPTH 48UL
    struct held_lock held_locks[MAX_LOCK_DEPTH];
    gfp_t lockdep_reclaim_gfp;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_UBSAN
    unsigned int in_ubsan;
#endif
/* journalling filesystem info */
    void *journal_info;
/* stacked block device info */
    struct bio_list *bio_list;
/* VM state */
    struct reclaim_state *reclaim_state;
    struct backing_dev_info *backing_dev_info;
    unsigned long ptrace_message;
    siginfo_t *last_siginfo; /* For ptrace use.  */
#ifdef CONFIG_CPUSETS
    nodemask_t mems_allowed;    /* Protected by alloc_lock */
#endif
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_PREEMPT
    unsigned long preempt_disable_ip;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
    short il_next;
    short pref_node_fork;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA_BALANCING
    int numa_scan_seq;
    unsigned int numa_scan_period_max;
    unsigned long numa_migrate_retry;
    struct list_head numa_entry;
    /*
     * numa_faults is an array split into four regions:
     * faults_memory, faults_cpu, faults_memory_buffer, faults_cpu_buffer
     * in this precise order.
     *
     * faults_memory: Exponential decaying average of faults on a per-node
     * basis. Scheduling placement decisions are made based on these
     * counts. The values remain static for the duration of a PTE scan.
     * faults_cpu: Track the nodes the process was running on when a NUMA
     * hinting fault was incurred.
     * faults_memory_buffer and faults_cpu_buffer: Record faults per node
     * during the current scan window. When the scan completes, the counts
     * in faults_memory and faults_cpu decay and these values are copied.
     */
    unsigned long total_numa_faults;
    /*
     * numa_faults_locality tracks if faults recorded during the last
     * scan window were remote/local or failed to migrate. The task scan
     * period is adapted based on the locality of the faults with different
     * weights depending on whether they were shared or private faults
     */
    unsigned long numa_faults_locality[3];
    unsigned long numa_pages_migrated;
#endif /* CONFIG_NUMA_BALANCING */
#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_WANT_BATCHED_UNMAP_TLB_FLUSH
    struct tlbflush_unmap_batch tlb_ubc;
#endif
    struct rcu_head rcu;
    /*
     * cache last used pipe for splice
     */
    struct pipe_inode_info *splice_pipe;
    struct page_frag task_frag;
#ifdef CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION
    int make_it_fail;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_LATENCYTOP
    int latency_record_count;
    struct latency_record latency_record[LT_SAVECOUNT];
#endif
    /*
     * time slack values; these are used to round up poll() and
     * select() etc timeout values. These are in nanoseconds.
     */
    unsigned long timer_slack_ns;
    unsigned long default_timer_slack_ns; //父进程的 timer_slack_ns
#ifdef CONFIG_KASAN
    unsigned int kasan_depth;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
    /* Index of current stored address in ret_stack */
    int curr_ret_stack;
    /* Stack of return addresses for return function tracing */
    struct ftrace_ret_stack *ret_stack;
    /* time stamp for last schedule */
    unsigned long long ftrace_timestamp;
    /*
     * Number of functions that haven't been traced
     * because of depth overrun.
     */
    atomic_t trace_overrun;
    /* Pause for the tracing */
    atomic_t tracing_graph_pause;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_TRACING
    /* state flags for use by tracers */
    unsigned long trace;
    /* bitmask and counter of trace recursion */
    unsigned long trace_recursion;
#endif /* CONFIG_TRACING */
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG
    struct mem_cgroup *memcg_in_oom;
    gfp_t memcg_oom_gfp_mask;
    int memcg_oom_order;
    /* number of pages to reclaim on returning to userland */
    unsigned int memcg_nr_pages_over_high;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_UPROBES
    struct uprobe_task *utask;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_ATOMIC_SLEEP
    unsigned long   task_state_change;
#endif
/* CPU-specific state of this task */
    struct thread_struct thread;  //克隆父进程
/*
 * WARNING: on x86, 'thread_struct' contains a variable-sized
 * structure.  It *MUST* be at the end of 'task_struct'.
 *
 * Do not put anything below here!
 */
};

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